… Everything in your life will be created or destroyed by the way you speak things in your life…

abcstarstuff:

Strange physics turns off laser Inspired by anomalies that arise in certain mathematical equations, researchers have demonstrated a laser system that paradoxically turns off when more power is added rather than becoming continuously brighter.
The finding by a team of researchers at Vienna University of Technology and Princeton University, could lead to new ways to manipulate the interaction of electronics and light, an important tool in modern communications networks and high-speed information processing.
The researchers published their results June 13 in the journal Nature Communications (Ref. 1).
Their system involves two tiny lasers, each one-tenth of a millimeter in diameter, or about the width of a human hair. The two are nearly touching, separated by a distance 50 times smaller than the lasers themselves. One is pumped with electric current until it starts to emit light, as is normal for lasers. Power is then added slowly to the other, but instead of it also turning on and emitting even more light, the whole system shuts off.
"This is not the normal interference that we know," said Hakan Türeci, assistant professor of electrical engineering at Princeton, referring to the common phenomenon of light waves or sound waves from two sources cancelling each other. Instead, he said, the cancellation arises from the careful distribution of energy loss within an overall system that is being amplified.
"Loss is something you normally are trying to avoid," Türeci said. "In this case, we take advantage of it and it gives us a different dimension we can use – a new tool – in controlling optical systems."
The research grows out of Türeci’s longstanding work on mathematical models that describe the behavior of lasers. In 2008 (Ref. 2), he established a mathematical framework for understanding the unique properties and complex interactions that are possible in extremely small lasers – devices with features measured in micrometers or nanometers. Different from conventional desk-top lasers, these devices fit on a computer chip.
That work opened the door to manipulating gain or loss (the amplification or loss of an energy input) within a laser system. In particular, it allowed researchers to judiciously control the spatial distribution of gain and loss within a single system, with one tiny sub-area amplifying light and an immediately adjacent area absorbing the generated light.  Türeci and his collaborators are now using similar ideas to pursue counterintuitive ideas for using distribution of gain and loss to make micro-lasers more efficient.
The researchers’ ideas for taking advantage of loss derive from their study of mathematical constructs called “non-Hermitian” matrices in which a normally symmetric table of values becomes asymmetric. Türeci said the work is related to certain ideas of quantum physics in which the fundamental symmetries of time and space in nature can break down even though the equations used to describe the system continue to maintain perfect symmetry.
Over the past several years, Türeci and his collaborators at Vienna worked to show how the mathematical anomalies at the heart of this work, called “exceptional points,” could be manifested in an actual system. In 2012 (Ref. 3), the team published a paper in the journal Physical Review Letters demonstrating computer simulations of a laser system that shuts off as energy is being added. In the current Nature Communications paper, the researchers created an experimental realization of their theory using a light source known as a quantum cascade laser.
The researchers report in the article that results could be of particular value in creating “lab-on-a-chip” devices – instruments that pack tiny optical devices onto a single computer chip. Understanding how multiple optical devices interact could provide ways to manipulate their performance electronically in previously unforeseen ways. Taking advantage of the way loss and gain are distributed within tightly coupled laser systems could lead to new types of highly accurate sensors, the researchers said.
"Our approach provides a whole new set of levers to create unforeseen and useful behaviors," Türeci said.
The work at Vienna, including creation and demonstration of the actual device, was led by Stefan Rotter at Vienna along with Martin Brandstetter, Matthias Liertzer, C. Deutsch, P. Klang, J. Schöberl, G. Strasser and K. Unterrainer. Türeci participated in the development of the mathematical models underlying the phenomena. The work on the 2012 computer simulation of the system also included Li Ge, who was a post-doctoral researcher at Princeton at the time and is now an assistant professor at City University of New York.
IMAGE…Manipulating minute areas of gain and loss within individual lasers (shown as peaks and valleys in the image), researchers were able to create paradoxical interactions between two nearby lasers.  Credit: Vienna University of Technology

abcstarstuff:

Strange physics turns off laser

Inspired by anomalies that arise in certain mathematical equations, researchers have demonstrated a laser system that paradoxically turns off when more power is added rather than becoming continuously brighter.

The finding by a team of researchers at Vienna University of Technology and Princeton University, could lead to new ways to manipulate the interaction of electronics and light, an important tool in modern communications networks and high-speed information processing.

The researchers published their results June 13 in the journal Nature Communications (Ref. 1).

Their system involves two tiny lasers, each one-tenth of a millimeter in diameter, or about the width of a human hair. The two are nearly touching, separated by a distance 50 times smaller than the lasers themselves. One is pumped with electric current until it starts to emit light, as is normal for lasers. Power is then added slowly to the other, but instead of it also turning on and emitting even more light, the whole system shuts off.

"This is not the normal interference that we know," said Hakan Türeci, assistant professor of electrical engineering at Princeton, referring to the common phenomenon of light waves or sound waves from two sources cancelling each other. Instead, he said, the cancellation arises from the careful distribution of energy loss within an overall system that is being amplified.

"Loss is something you normally are trying to avoid," Türeci said. "In this case, we take advantage of it and it gives us a different dimension we can use – a new tool – in controlling optical systems."

The research grows out of Türeci’s longstanding work on mathematical models that describe the behavior of lasers. In 2008 (Ref. 2), he established a mathematical framework for understanding the unique properties and complex interactions that are possible in extremely small lasers – devices with features measured in micrometers or nanometers. Different from conventional desk-top lasers, these devices fit on a computer chip.

That work opened the door to manipulating gain or loss (the amplification or loss of an energy input) within a laser system. In particular, it allowed researchers to judiciously control the spatial distribution of gain and loss within a single system, with one tiny sub-area amplifying light and an immediately adjacent area absorbing the generated light.

Türeci and his collaborators are now using similar ideas to pursue counterintuitive ideas for using distribution of gain and loss to make micro-lasers more efficient.

The researchers’ ideas for taking advantage of loss derive from their study of mathematical constructs called “non-Hermitian” matrices in which a normally symmetric table of values becomes asymmetric. Türeci said the work is related to certain ideas of quantum physics in which the fundamental symmetries of time and space in nature can break down even though the equations used to describe the system continue to maintain perfect symmetry.

Over the past several years, Türeci and his collaborators at Vienna worked to show how the mathematical anomalies at the heart of this work, called “exceptional points,” could be manifested in an actual system. In 2012 (Ref. 3), the team published a paper in the journal Physical Review Letters demonstrating computer simulations of a laser system that shuts off as energy is being added. In the current Nature Communications paper, the researchers created an experimental realization of their theory using a light source known as a quantum cascade laser.

The researchers report in the article that results could be of particular value in creating “lab-on-a-chip” devices – instruments that pack tiny optical devices onto a single computer chip. Understanding how multiple optical devices interact could provide ways to manipulate their performance electronically in previously unforeseen ways. Taking advantage of the way loss and gain are distributed within tightly coupled laser systems could lead to new types of highly accurate sensors, the researchers said.

"Our approach provides a whole new set of levers to create unforeseen and useful behaviors," Türeci said.

The work at Vienna, including creation and demonstration of the actual device, was led by Stefan Rotter at Vienna along with Martin Brandstetter, Matthias Liertzer, C. Deutsch, P. Klang, J. Schöberl, G. Strasser and K. Unterrainer. Türeci participated in the development of the mathematical models underlying the phenomena. The work on the 2012 computer simulation of the system also included Li Ge, who was a post-doctoral researcher at Princeton at the time and is now an assistant professor at City University of New York.

IMAGE…Manipulating minute areas of gain and loss within individual lasers (shown as peaks and valleys in the image), researchers were able to create paradoxical interactions between two nearby lasers.
Credit: Vienna University of Technology

spaceplasma:

The Doppler Shift

The Doppler effect explains why objects moving towards us or away from us at high speed appear to have their colors shifted either towards blue or red respectively.

When an object moves towards us, the crests of the light waves we see from it are compressed together, making the wavelength of the light shorter (and hence bluer), while for an object moving away the separation between crests is stretched, making the light’s wavelength longer (and hence redder). In the simulation above, the monochromatic source of light, as it moves right, would appear blue to an observer on the right-hand side, and red to an observer on the left.

Scientists use spectroscopy — a technique that breaks light up into its component wavelengths — to study the vicinity of supermassive black holes. As matter spins around the black hole, the Doppler effect kicks in, this means that one side appears slightly redder, and the other slightly bluer than it really is. Note that the effect is exaggerated in this computer simulation, which depicts the vicinity of the black hole in the galaxy Messier 87 — one of the first to be studied by Hubble.

Credit: ESA/Hubble (L. Calçada)

inothernews:

This is an actual time-lapse video, comprising images captured by the Hubble Space Telescope over a four-year period, of the exploding star V8C8 Monocerotis.  It also represents GOP Majority Leader Eric Cantor’s political career as of the June 10 Virginia primary.  (via Sploid)

srflowers:

This makes me feel good :9

srflowers:

This makes me feel good :9

sagansense:

3D Printing Set To Go Mainstream

Some of the oddest items on display at the CES gadget show were edible, origami-like sculptures made of sugar, their shapes so convoluted as to baffle the eye.

The treats are one of many signs that we’ll all be getting a taste of 3D printing soon — and the phenomenon won’t be relegated to the realm of engineers and tech enthusiasts.

The sugar sculptures are the output of the ChefJet Pro, the first commercial, kitchen-ready food printer. It looks like an oven, and deposits sugar layer by layer in a tray, then melts the parts intended for the sculpture with water so they solidify much like sugar in a bowl will harden with moisture.

Ink can be selectively added to the water so the sculptures come out in full color — a feature sure to set the minds of wedding and party planners spinning. Next to the geometric sculptures was a wedding cake supported by a delicate lattice-work tower of sugar that would be nearly impossible to make by conventional means.

imageEdible confections made in the 3D Systems ChefJet Pro 3D food printer are displayed at the 2014 International CES, January 9, 2014 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The ChefJet Pro can print multi-colored confections with sugar and a single added flavor and is intended for commercial use in the hospitality industry such as hotels, restaurants and personal chefs.

Oh, and the printer can print in chocolate too.

3D Systems Inc., a Rock Hill, S.C., company, expects to sell the full-color printer for about $100,000 in the latter half of this year, and a monochrome version for half that price.

Last year, there were only a handful of 3D printing companies at the gadget show. This year, there were thirty, and the organizers had to turn others away because they couldn’t fit them in. The 3D printing area of the show floor drew dense crowds that gawked at the printers and their creations, which ranged from toys to tea cups to iPhone cases.

Melissa Spencer, a jewelry designer from Los Angeles, was at the show to look for a printer. 3D printers have been used in jewelry-making for a long time, but high prices and poor resolution have limited their use. With prices down and output quality up, it’s now possible for an independent designer to buy her own printer, Spencer says.

The printers focus bright ultraviolet light into liquid resin, setting it. That takes time. One printer maker cited seven hours for a batch of five rings. The plastic pieces are then used to create molds for molten silver, gold or platinum.

Spencer is now toying with the idea of abandoning the reuse of molds, and instead using the power of a 3D printer to make every piece a one-off, unique design, customized to the buyer. It helps that she can show the plastic prototypes to the customer before casting.

With 3D printing, "we’re moving to a world of mass customization," says Shawn Dubravac, an analyst for the Consumer Electronics Association, which puts on the show. What started with custom-printed t-shirts a la CafePress can now happen in all kinds of industries, he adds. It’s still a small field, though. He expects that just under 100,000 3D printers will be sold in 2014.

One jewelry company was at CES to demonstrate how it has taken the capabilities of the 3D printer and made them the core of its business. American Pearl, a family-owned company founded in 1950, in November revamped its website to allow shoppers to order custom jewelry. From about 1,000 basic designs, the buyers can change metals and stones and order engravings and they can see the results rendered in 3D on their computer screens. The company prints the orders in 3D in its factory in New York.

The approach lets the company keep prices low while satisfying customer’s demands for unique pieces, says American Pearl president Eddie Bakhash. "If you saw the backend of our system, you’d see that every order coming in is different."

The mass customization capability is useful in unexpected fields. Bre Pettis, the CEO of New York-based printer manufacturer MakerBot, is proud that a customer, a South African carpenter who had lost four fingers in an accident, figured out how to use a printer to make a mechanical hand for himself. He distributed the blueprints to other MakerBot users, who can tweak them to fit.

"Normally, prosthetics cost tens of thousands of dollars, but with the MakerBot, they cost five dollars in materials," Pettis says.

MakerBot unveiled new models at the show, including its biggest one yet, which is the size of a mini-fridge, costs $6,499 and can print objects the size of a human head. It also launched a smaller version, the Replicator Mini, which can create cupcake-sized objects. It will cost $1,375 when it launches this spring.

MakerBot will be undersold, however, by XYZprinting Inc. of Taiwan, which plans to sell its Da Vinci printer starting in March in the U.S. for $499. That’s a price that’s bound to attract a lot of people who would never have imagined, a year ago, that they’d have a 3D printer in the house.

The MakerBot and Da Vinci printers take rolls of plastic wire and melt them, piece by piece, depositing tiny dots to create objects. The resulting pieces can be light and strong, but their surfaces show a characteristic banded texture and the resolution is limited; the overall impression is crude. The light-curing models used by jewelers and engineers produce smooth objects with fine detail, but they’ve been out of reach of consumers and tinkerers until now.

The show provided hope on that front, however: XFab, an Italian company that’s made professional 3D printers for a decade, demonstrated a $5,000 laser-powered model at the show, and says it is looking at launching a smaller, $2,500 model later this year. That’s roughly the price of the standard MakerBot, which has been the vanguard of the consumer 3D printing movement so far.

Elsewhere at the show, there was a “technology fashion” show that featured 3D-printed shoes and a bag with appliques created on a consumer-level, computer-controlled cloth cutter, the Brother ScanNCut.

"The question in my mind is not ‘Will we have a 3D printer in each home?’ but ‘Which room will it be in?’" says Avi Reichental, the CEO of 3D Systems. "Will it be in your garage? Will it be in your kids’ room, or the man cave… Or the wardrobe?"

Source: Laboratory Equipment

Got to bewhole in this day..